GM Family II engine
The Family II is a straight-4 piston engine that was originally developed by Opel in late 1970s for use in the Opel Ascona B and Opel Kadett D. Over time, the engine block has evolved to include many modern features such as DOHC and fuel injection. Family II has also expanded to include a range of Opel derived 6 cylinder engines. Many General Motors subsidiaries, including Holden, GM do Brasil and recently GM Powertrain have adopted this design. It is also starting to be used in hot rods as an engine swap.
These engines formed the basis of the modern Family II lineup. Configuration was limited to a single over head cam, and 2 Valves per cylinder (8 valves total). The 20NE served as the base, where later Family II motors evolved.
Common features include:
- Cast iron block
- 6 bolt flywheel
- Aluminum head.
- 1998 cc, 86 mm x 86 mm bore/stroke
|20NE||116 horsepower (87 kW) @ 5200 rpm||175 N·m (129 lb·ft) @ 2600 rpm||9.2:1||Motronic ML 4.1|
|20SE||122 horsepower (91 kW)||10.0:1||Motronic ML 4.1||High compression pistons|
|20SEH||130 horsepower (97 kW) @ 5600 rpm||180 N·m (133 lb·ft)||10.0:1||Motronic ML 4.1||High compression pistons; More aggressive camshaft than 20SE|
|C20NE||115 horsepower (86 kW) @ 5200 rpm||170 N·m (125 lb·ft) @ 2600 rpm||9.2:1||Motronic 1.5/Motronic 1.5.2||Catalytic converter; Lambda sensor.|
A South African derivative of the 20SEH engine was used until 1999 in the Astra/Kadett models featuring 10:1 compression ratio and a Bosch Motronic 1.5.4 engine management system. Quoted power was 95 kW (129 PS; 127 hp) and 180 N·m (133 lb·ft) of torque.
The 2 liter 8v OHC engines is used in the base versions of:
- Opel Calibra
- Opel Astra F
- Opel Omega A
- Opel Kadett E
- Opel Ascona C
- Opel Frontera A
- Opel Vectra A-A2-B
- Vauxhall Cavalier
- Vauxhall Astra
- Vauxhall Carlton
- Vauxhall Frontera
- Vauxhall Calibra
The naturally-aspirated 16-valve version of the 2.0 L— 1998 cc (121.9 cu in) — cast iron block engine is the successor to the OHC-engines and a predecessor to the 16-valve Ecotec-line of engines.
This lineup features the same block as the OHC based engines with an 86 mm (3.4 in) bore & stroke and a Cosworth-developed DOHC cylinder head (Cosworth Project KB). The cylinder heads were manufactured by either Cosworth or, at a latter date, Kolben Schmidt. In general, the heads from this lineup are supposed to flow appreciablу better than their Ecotec successors. Power output is rated at 110 kW (150 hp) at 6000 rpm and 196 N·m at 4600 rpm (C20XE) or 156 hp (20XE).
-1998 cc (121.9 cu in); 86 mm × 86 mm (3.4 in × 3.4 in) bore x stroke
-Cast iron block
-Aluminium oil pan with cooling fins
-Air mass flow meter
-8 bolt flywheel
-157 hp (117 kW)
-198 N·m (146 lb·ft)
-Compression ratio: 10.8-1
-Engine Management: Bosh Motronic 2.5
-150 bhp @ 6000 rpm
-196 N·m (145 lb·ft) @ 4600 rpm
-Compression ratio: 10.8-1
-Engine Management: Bosh Motronic 2.8
-204 hp @ 5600 rpm
-280 N·m (207 lb·ft) @ 2400 rpm
-Compression ratio: 9.0-1
-Turbo pressure: 0.6 bars (8.7 psi) continuous with a 0.8 bars (12 psi) overboost
-Engine Management: Bosch Motronic M2.7
-The map sensor is built into the ECU.
-Turbo used in the C20LET: KKK16, integral water cooling and oil lubrication.
These engines were used in:
- Opel Kadett GSI 16v
- Opel Vectra 2000
- Opel Vectra GT 16V
- Opel Vectra Turbo
- Opel Calibra Turbo
- Opel Calibra 16V
- Opel Astra GSi 16v
- Opel Astra Irmscher caravan
- Lada 110
The turbocharged version of the C20XE, branded C20LET was also offered in the Opel/Vauxhall Calibra and Vectra Turbo. The C20LET is essentially the same as the C20XE, bar the lower compression, forged Mahle pistons turbocharger, Bosh Motronic M2.7 with MAP a sensor. There are also slight revisions to the block which provide an oil inlet/outlet for the turbocharger.
Opel later developed a 2.5 liter V6 engine based on the C20XE's design. The V6 powerplant featured four camshafts and 4 valves per cylinder. The C25XE found use in the V6 Calibra/Vectra A/A2/Omega B.
-2498 cc (152.4 cu in)
-170 hp @ 6000 rpm
-226 N·m (167 lb·ft) @ 4200 rpm Engine Management Bosch Motronic 2.8
The first engine Opel branded as Ecotec, a mass-market successor to the C20XE with a Lotus-developed cylinder head. The new cylinder head had a smaller valve angle compared to the older C20XE, which was supposed to give more torque in the lower revs. It is a 1998 cc (121.9 cu in) naturally aspirated engine with 16 valves and belt driven double overhead camshafts (DOHC). 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and stroke in cast iron OHC-derived cylinder block and aluminium cylinder head. X20XEV was equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions and air injection reactor (AIR) to speed up the warming up of the catalytic converter and to reduce unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Power 100 kW / 136 hp.
This engine was used in:
A V6 engine - essentially an Ecotec version of the C25XE. It has similar design features to the X20XEV - particularly the cylender heads and emission reduction hardware. This engine was used in the Opel Omega.
The X25XE was also used in Later Models of Vectra B from 2000 until 2002. It was to prove popular in Police Vehicles in the UK.
The Ecotec name was adopted in 2000 for the new generation of Family II engines. The name was already used for the Opel GM Family II engine, Family 1 and Family 0 ranges. GM intends this new Ecotec to become its global 4-cylinder.
The Ecotec Family II is a DOHC 4-valve design with an aluminum block and head (L850 for 86 mm bore applications, and L880 for 88 mm bore), designed for displacements from 1.8 to 2.4 L. It was developed by an international team of engineers and technicians from Opel's International Technical Development Center in Rüsselsheim, Germany, GM Powertrain in Pontiac, Michigan, and Saab in Trollhättan, Sweden. Much of the development work on this project was carried out by Lotus Engineering, Hethel, United Kingdom. The engine uses aluminum pistons and cast iron cylinder liners. Vibration is reduced with twin balance shafts.
The current Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York, Kaiserslautern, Germany, and (for Saturn) in Spring Hill, Tennessee.
Opel/Vauxhall offers a turbocharged version of the 2.0 L — 1998 cc (121.9 cu in) — Ecotec (the Z20LET) in a cast iron block; it features a square 86 mm (3.38 in) bore and stroke, 9.5:1 compression, 200 hp (147 kW) and 195 lb·ft (265 N·m) of torque.
This engine is used in:
LK9 is a turbocharged 2.0 L— 1998 cc (121.9 cu in) — version of the L61 utilizing a reinforced sand cast aluminum cylinder head and reinforced internal components. It features an 86 mm (3.39 in) bore and stroke and a 9.5:1 compression ratio. Power is 210 horsepower (160 kW) at 5300 rpm and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque at 2500 rpm. Maximum boost is 12.3 psi (0.85 bar).
- 2003–present Saab 9-3
A turbocharged direct injected (redubbed Spark Ignition Direct Injection) Ecotec was introduced in the 2007 Solstice GXP. Displacement is 2.0 L — 1998 cc (121.9 cu in) — with a square 86 mm (3.38 in) bore and stroke. Compression is 9.2:1 and maximum boost is 20.0 psi, delivering 260 hp (194 kW) at 5300 rpm and 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) of torque from 2500–5250 rpm. Engine redline is at 6300 rpm and premium fuel is recommended. The "Gen II" block is similar to the 2.4 L and also features VVT technology.
Unique LNF features include:
- a twin-scroll turbocharger
- gasoline direct injection
- variable valve timing on both intake and exhaust
- sodium-filled valves
- oil-cooled low-friction cast pistons
This engine is used in:
- 2007–present Opel GT
- 2007–present Solstice GXP
- 2007–present Saturn Sky Red Line
- 2008 Chevy HHR SS
- 2008 Chevrolet Cobalt SS
It will also be sold and used in:
- 2009 Fisker Karma
A high-end direct injection version of the 2.2 L Ecotec is available for:
- Opel Vectra
- Opel Signum
A high-end direct injected 2.4L Ecotec is available for the 2010 Chevy Equinox. This engine makes 180 hp (130 kW; 180 PS) and 172 ft·lbf (233 N·m) of torque, partly due to an 11.4:1 compression ratio.
- This engine is also known as a Z22SE in other countries such as The United Kingdom and Australia
The basic Family II architecture was substantially reengineered in 2000, becoming the Ecotec 2.2, model L61 (or L42 for the CNG version). First appearing in the 2000 Saturn LS1, the L61 spread throughout North American GM products, displacing the Quad 4 and its descendents.
Unlike its notably harsh predecessor, the L61 was designed for smoothness. dual in-block balance shafts were integral to the design, and all accessories were mounted directly to the engine block to reduce vibration. The oil filter was cast into the block with a removable cover and replaceable paper element.
Displacement for the 2.2 L engine is 2196 cc (134 cu in) with an 86 mm (3.38 in) bore and 94.6 mm (3.72 in) stroke. Compression is 9.5:1 or 10:1, delivering 135 to 143 hp (101 to 107 kW) and 142 to 152 lb·ft (193 to 206 N·m) of torque. The Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York, Kaiserslautern, Germany, and (for Saturn) in Spring Hill, Tennessee. The L61-powered Saturn Ion replaced the Saturn-powered Saturn S-Series.
There are a few variations to the standard L61. The new Chevrolet Malibu uses a version with electronic throttle control and a special unitized exhaust manifold and catalytic converter. The 2003 Saturn L-Series has a high output version with higher (10:1) compression and more aggressive camshaft. The Malibu and Saturn versions also use return-less fuel injection. The 2002 Saturn VUE was the first North American variant of the L61 to be equipped with electronic throttle control, whereas other applications did not arise until 2005 in the Saturn ION and Chevrolet Cobalt.
In 2007 the L61 was upgraded with a second generation cylinder case, Coil on plug ignition, 58x crankshaft position sensing and a 32-bit computer.
The 2.2 L Ecotec is used in the following cars:
|2002–2005||Chevrolet Cavalier||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2004||Chevrolet Classic (Malibu)||144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm||155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2005–2006||Chevrolet Cobalt||145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm||155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2007–2008||148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4200 rpm|
|2006||Chevrolet HHR||143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2007–2008||Chevrolet HHR||149 hp (111 kW) @ 5600 rpm||152 lb·ft (206 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2002–2004||Oldsmobile Alero||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2002–2005||Pontiac Grand Am||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2002–2005||Pontiac Sunfire||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2005–2008||Pontiac G5/Pursuit||145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm||155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2003–2005||Saturn L-Series (high output)||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||145 lb·ft (197 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2003–2007||Saturn Ion||140 hp (100 kW) @ 5600 rpm||145 lb·ft (197 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2002–2007||Saturn VUE||143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm||155 lb·ft (210 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|2001–2005||Vauxhall VX220/Opel Speedster||147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4000 rpm|
|Opel/Vauxhall/Holden Zafira/Subaru Traviq|
Following the GM-Fiat agreement, the 2.2 L engine is also used in
- Fiat Croma
- Alfa Romeo 159
The Ecotec 2.2, model L42 is the CNG version of the Ecotec 2.2. It delivers 129 hp (96 kW) and 129 lb·ft (175 N·m).
The LSJ is a supercharged version of the LK9 Ecotec with an Eaton M62 Roots-type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler. It is rated at 205 hp (153 kW) at 5600 rpm and 200 lb·ft (271 N·m) at 4400 rpm with a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and a 6500 rpm redline. With the end of the Chevy Cobalt S/C SS and Saturn Ion Red Line, The LSJ will no longer be available in a production car after 2007.
The LSJ was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006.
This engine is used in:
|2004–2007||Saturn Ion Red Line||205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm||200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm|
|2005–2007||Chevrolet Cobalt SS Supercharged Coupe||205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm||200 lb·ft (271 N·m) @ 4400 rpm|
The LE5 is a larger 2.4 L — 2376 cc (144.9 cu in) — version of the Ecotec. Both the 88 mm (3.5 in) bore and 98 mm (3.9 in) stroke are larger, and Variable Valve Timing on the intake and exhaust improve low-end torque. Compression is 10.4:1. Power is 164-177 hp (123-132 kW) and torque is 159-170 lb·ft (215-230 N·m). The engine uses a reinforced "Gen II" block.
|2006–2007||Chevrolet Cobalt SS||173 hp (129 kW) @ 6200 rpm||163 lb·ft (221 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2008||Chevrolet Cobalt Sport||171 hp (128 kW) @ 6200 rpm||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2006–2008||Chevrolet HHR||175 hp (130 kW)||165 lb·ft (224 N·m)|
|2006–2008||Pontiac G5/Pursuit||171 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2006–present||Pontiac G6||169 hp (126 kW) @ 6300 rpm||162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2006–present||Pontiac Solstice||173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm||164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2006–present||Saturn Sky||173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm||166 lb·ft (225 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2006–2007||Saturn Ion||175 hp (130 kW) @ 6200 rpm||164 lb·ft (222 N·m) @ 4800 rpm|
|2008–present||Saturn Aura||169 hp (126 kW)||162 lb·ft (220 N·m)|
|2008–present||Chevrolet Malibu||169 hp (126 kW)||162 lb·ft (220 N·m)|
|2008–present||Saturn Vue||169 hp (126 kW) @ 6200 rpm||161 lb·ft (218 N·m) @ 5100 rpm|
The LE5 is also used in the following overseas models:
- 2006 GM Taiwan Buick LaCrosse
- 2006 Shanghai GM Buick LaCrosse
The LAT is the designation used for the 2.4 L LE5 when used in GM's mild hybrid vehicles.
|2007–present||Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid||164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm||159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm|
|2007||Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid||170 hp (130 kW) @ 6600 rpm||162 lb·ft (220 N·m) @ 4200 rpm|
|2008||Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid||172 hp (128 kW) @ 6500 rpm||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm|
|2008–present||Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid||164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm||159 lb·ft (216 N·m) @ 5000 rpm|
The LE9 is an E85 compatible version of the 2.4 L — 2384 cc (145.4 cu in) — LE5 Ecotec. Bore and stroke are 88 mm (3.5 in) and 98 mm (3.9 in) and has a compression ratio of 10.4:1, the same as the LE5.
|2009||Chevrolet HHR||172 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm (gasoline)||167 lb·ft (226 N·m) @ 4500 rpm (gasoline)|
|176 hp (131 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85)||170 lb·ft (230 N·m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)|
The LAP is a 2.2 L — 2189 cc (133.5 cu in) — version of the Ecotec, based on the Gen II block. Bore and stroke are 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.7 in), the same as the 2.2 L L61. Compression ratio is 10.0:1. Major features that set it apart from the 2.2 L L61 are variable-valve-timing and other cylinder head improvements from the 2.4 L LE5.
|2009||Chevrolet Cobalt||155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
|2009||Pontiac G5||155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4900 rpm|
The LE8 is an E85 compatible 2.2 L — 2189 cc (133.5 cu in) — version of the LAP Ecotec. Bore and stroke remain the same 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.7 in). Compression ratio is 10.0:1 and the engine can run on both regular unleaded gasoline or E85.
|2009||Chevrolet HHR||155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm (gasoline)||150 lb·ft (203 N·m) @ 4800 rpm (gasoline)|
|160 hp (120 kW) @ 6000 rpm (E85)||158 lb·ft (214 N·m) @ 4600 rpm (E85)|
The LAF is an direct injected 2.4L that delivers an estimated 180 horsepower (134 kW) @ 6700 rpm and 172 lb.-ft. of torque (232 Nm) @4900 rpm. It uses technology based on GM’s other four-cylinder direct injection applications, but with unique features designed for its specific application. This includes an 11.4:1 compression ratio that helps build power, slightly dished pistons that increase combustion efficiency and injectors with an application-specific flow rate.
|2010||Chevrolet Equinox||182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm (gasoline)||172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4900 rpm (gasoline)|
Holden makes various Family II engines for GM India and GM Daewoo at its Melbourne plant. Variations include displacements from 1.8 L to 2.4 L. Unlike the Ecotec engines, the block is made of iron.
This is the 2.0 L — 1998 cc (121.9 cu in) — variant of the engines, featuring an 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and 86 mm (3.4 in) stroke. Power is 119 hp (89 kW) at 5400 rpm and torque is 126 lb·ft (171 N·m).
The engine has been used on following vehicles:
- Chevrolet Optra
- Chevrolet Evanda
- Suzuki Reno
- Suzuki Forenza
- 1.8 L - Chevrolet Lacetti, Chevrolet Nubira, Chevrolet Rezzo
- C24SE, *2.4 L SOHC - Isuzu Rodeo
- 2.4 L DOHC - Chevrolet Captiva, Opel Antara
GM In Brazil
GM In Brazil specializes in SOHC --non Ecotec-- FlexPower (alcohol and petrol powered) iron block engines.
- X20XE — 2.0 L SFI SOHC 8V FlexPower
- X24XF — 2.4 L MPFI SOHC 8V FlexPower
- X24SFD — 2.4 L SFI DOHC 16V FlexPower
In 2004, a 2.0 L MultiPower engine was made available for the taxi market which could use gasoline, alcohol and natural gas.
A 2.0 L FlexPower engine is available for the current Chevrolet Astra and Vectra. The 2006 Chevrolet Vectra also received a 2.4 L 16V FlexPower engine.
GM In the Ariel Atom
In late 2005 Brammo Motorsports struck a deal with GM for a Supercharged 2.0 L Ecotec for their Ariel Atom. The engine came in various ratings from 205 hp (153 kW) to 300 hp (220 kW). Jay Leno received the very first Atom for commercial sale in the US by Brammo.
GM ECOtec Owner Meets
GM supports the owners of its ECOtec vehicles by holding owners meets at various auto enthusiast events across the country[clarification needed]. These events offer Q&A with ECOtec engine engineers, meet-n-greet's with the GM Race car drivers and inside info before it's released anywhere else. At most events GM brings out cars that are not yet in production to give current owners a "sneak peek" at the new line of ECOtec powered vehicles before they hit the streets.
2008 ECOtec Owner Meet Schedule
|7/12||Charlotte, NC||HIN||Lowe's Motor Speedway|
|7/19||Orlando, FL||HIN||Orange County Convention Center|
|8/16-17||Richmond, VA||NOPI||Virginia International Raceway|
|8/23-24||Englishtown, NJ||NOP||Old Bridge Raceway Park|
|9/20-21||Atlanta, GA||NOPI Nationals||Atlanta Motor Speedway|
|9/27||Minneapolis, MN||HIN||Minneapolis Convention Center|
|10/11||Dallas, TX||HIN||Dallas Convention Center|
- Larry Webster. "Getting Rid of the H-Word". Car and Driver (May 2000): 93.
- "Turbo ECOTEC 2.0L". http://www.pontiac.com/solstice/specs_performance.jsp. Retrieved on March 26.
- "Big Power, Small Package". AutoWeek. http://autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060403/FREE/60403004/1024/LATESTNEWS. Retrieved on 2006.
- Roth, Dan (17 December 2008). "DI FTW: GM unveils new direct-injection 2.4L EcoTec and 3.0L V6". autoblog.com. http://www.autoblog.com/2008/12/18/di-ftw-gm-new-direct-inject-2-4l-ecotec-and-3-0l-v6. Retrieved on 17 December 2008.
- KappaPerformance.com - Performance Forum for the Pontiac Solstice, Saturn Sky, Opel GT & Daewoo G2X