Difference between revisions of "Chevrolet Cavalier"

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{{future automobile}}
{{Primarysources|date=April 2007}}
{{expand|date=November 2008}}
{{Infobox Automobile
{{Infobox Automobile
| image = [[Image:Chevrolet Volt 2009 NAIAS.JPG|250 px|Chevrolet Volt Concept]]<br>Chevrolet Volt Concept (as shown in the [[North American International Auto Show]] of 2009)
| image         = [[Image:88-90 Chevrolet Cavalier sedan.jpg|250px|1988-1990 Chevrolet Cavalier sedan]]
| name = Chevrolet Volt
| name           = Chevrolet Cavalier
| aka = [[Holden]] Volt
| manufacturer   = [[General Motors]]
| manufacturer = [[General Motors]]
| production     = 1982–2005
| production = 2010–
| class          = [[Subcompact]] (1982-87)<br>[[Compact car|Compact]] (1988-2005)
| assembly = [[United Kingdom]]<br />[[United States]]<ref name="ft_20080723"/>
| predecessor   = [[Chevrolet Monza]]
| predecessor =
| successor     = [[Chevrolet Cobalt]] (For [[United States]] and [[Canada]])<Br>[[Chevrolet Optra]] (For [[Mexico]])
| successor =
| platform      = [[GM J platform|J-body]]
| class = [[Compact car]]
| layout         = [[FF layout]]
| body_style = 4-door [[liftback]]
| layout = [[Front-engine, front-wheel drive layout|Front engine, front-wheel drive]]<!-- possibly MF? -->
| platform = [[GM Delta II platform|Delta II]] / [[GM E-Flex platform|E-Flex]]
The '''Chevrolet Cavalier''' was a compact automobile produced from 1982 to 2005 by [[General Motors]]. Built on the company's [[GM J platform|J platform]], the Cavalier was one of the best-selling cars in the [[United States]] throughout its life.[http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:KlDfpOCwfboJ:www.postnewsads.com/budwells/viewarticles.asp%3FarticleID%3D82]<!-- http://www.postnewsads.com/budwells/viewarticles.asp?articleID=82 --><!-- "Little Chevy Cavalier big in entertainment", Bud Wells, Post-News Autos -->
| engine = 111&nbsp;kW (150&nbsp;hp) electric motor<ref name="GMPressRelease">{{cite web|url=http://media.gm.com/servlet/GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/gmnews/viewpressreldetail.do?domain=2&docid=48589 |title=Chevrolet Volt Leads General Motors Into Its Second Century|date=2008-09-16|accessdate=2008-09-16|publisher=GM Communications}}</ref><br />1.4&nbsp;L 4-cylinder for powering 53&nbsp;kW generator<ref>{{cite web|url=http://media.gm.com/servlet/GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/gmnews/viewpressreldetail.do?domain=2&docid=48931|title=GM's 'Boost' In Efficient Four-Cylinders Includes More Turbos}}</ref>
| transmission =
== Predecessors ==
|wheelbase = {{convert|105.7|in|mm|abbr=on}}<ref name="GMPressRelease"/>
The Cavalier replaced the [[Chevrolet Monza|Monza]], which was available as a 2-door [[coupe]], a 3-door [[hatchback]] and a 3-door [[station wagon|wagon]] (using the same body as the discontinued [[Chevrolet Vega|Vega]] wagon, the model it replaced). The inexpensive [[Chevrolet Chevette|Chevette]] was retained even as sales declined, and was formally replaced by even smaller captive imports. Both previous platforms had conventional rear-drive layouts while the new design could compete on the same level with more efficient front wheel drive offerings, such as the [[Dodge Omni]] and [[Honda Civic]]. [[Ford Motor Company|Ford]] and [[Chrysler]] also introduced new front drive compacts. The largely successful mission of capturing the bulk of domestic compact sales would fall on the Cavalier's 2-door [[coupe]], 4-door [[sedan (car)|sedan]] and 4-door [[station wagon]], the relatively short-lived 3-door [[hatchback]] (which replaced the Monza [[2+2 (car body style)|2+2]] Sport 4-door hatchback) and, in later years, a 2-door [[convertible]]. The small Cavalier even helped fill in lagging sales of the [[Compact car|compact]] [[Chevrolet Citation|Citation]] (a [[Chevrolet Nova|Nova]] replacement).
| length = {{convert|177|in|mm|abbr=on}}<ref name="GMPressRelease"/>
| width = {{convert|70.8|in|mm|abbr=on}}
==First generation==
| height = {{convert|56.3|in|mm|abbr=on}}
  | weight =
{{Infobox Automobile generation
| fuel_capacity = unknown<ref>[http://gm-volt.com/2008/04/11/volt-gas-tank-shrunk-maximum-range-reduced/ "Volt Gas Tank Shrunk - Maximum Range Reduced",] GM-VOLT: Chevy Volt Concept Site</ref> + 16&nbsp;kWh nominal, 8.8&nbsp;kWh usable
| name          = First generation
| electric_range = {{convert|40|mi|km|1}} (on the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency‎|EPA‎]] city cycle using battery only, much more using on-board gasoline-powered 53&nbsp;kW generator)
| image          = [[Image:1st Chevrolet Cavalier wagon front.jpg|250px|1985-1987 Chevrolet Cavalier wagon]]
| designer =
| model_years    = 1982–1987
| assembly      = [[Lordstown, Ohio]]<br>[[Lansing, Michigan]]<br>[[Janesville, Wisconsin]]<br>[[Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila]], [[Mexico]]<br>[[South Gate, California]] (1982 only)<br> [[Kansas City, Missouri]]
| body_style    = 2-door [[convertible]]<br>2-door [[coupe]]<br>3-door [[hatchback]]<br>4-door [[sedan (car)|sedan]]<br>4-door [[station wagon]]
| related        = [[Buick Skyhawk]]<br>[[Cadillac Cimarron]]<br>[[Oldsmobile Firenza]]<br>[[Pontiac Sunbird]]<br>[[Vauxhall Cavalier]]
| engine        = 1.8 L [[Straight-4|I4]]<br>2.0 L [[Straight-4|I4]]<br>2.8 L [[V6]]
| wheelbase     = {{auto in|101.2|0}}
| length         = Sedan: {{auto in|174.5|0}}<br>Coupe: {{auto in|173.5|0}}<br>Wagon: {{auto in|177.9|0}}
| width         = Sedan & Coupe: {{auto in|66.0|0}}<br>Wagon: {{auto in|66.3|0}}
| height         = Sedan & Coupe: {{auto in|52.0|0}}<br>Wagon: {{auto in|54.2|0}}
| fuel_capacity = 13.6 US gal
| transmission  = 4-speed [[manual transmission|manual]]<br>5-speed [[manual transmission|manual]]<br>3-speed [[automatic transmission|automatic]]
The '''[[Chevrolet]] Volt''' is a [[plug-in hybrid|plug-in]] [[series hybrid|series hybrid vehicle]] to be produced by [[General Motors]], expected to be launched as a 2011 model with production currently slated to begin in 2010.<ref>[http://gm-volt.com/2008/06/05/moving-the-chevy-volt-to-production-status/ "Moving the Chevy Volt to Production Status",] GM-VOLT: Chevy Volt Electric Car Site</ref> The Volt's propulsion system will be based on GM's new [[E-Flex platform]].

Unlike current commercially available hybrids, the actual propulsion of the Volt is accomplished by the electric motor, as the [[internal combustion engine]] (ICE) is not mechanically connected to the wheels. With fully charged batteries, this electric power will initially be sourced exclusively from its on-board [[Lithium-ion battery|lithium-ion batteries]] for up to {{convert|40|mi|km|0}}, a distance capable of satisfying the daily [[Commuting|commute]] of 75% of [[United States|Americans]],<ref name="theatl">Jonathan Rauch, [http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200807/general-motors "Electro-Shock Therapy"], ''The Atlantic'', July/August 2008</ref> which averages around {{convert|33|mi|km|0}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/050924/24career.htm|title=Money: New benefit: help with commuting costs - US News and World Report<!-- Bot generated title -->}}</ref>
The Cavalier first went on sale in early 1981 as a 1982 model with front-wheel-drive, a choice of two four-cylinder [[pushrod]] engines, and coupe, sedan, hatchback, and station wagon body styles.
1983 Cavaliers offered [[electronic fuel injection]], and a [[V6 engine]] became available in 1985, uncommon for a compact car. 1985 also brought minor styling changes.

After {{convert|40|mi|km}}, the range of the Volt will need to be extended through the use of a small 4-cylinder ICE which drives a 53&nbsp;kW [[electrical generator|generator]]. The electrical power from the generator is then sent to either the electric motor or the batteries, depending on the [[state of charge]] (SOC) of the battery pack and the power demanded at the wheels.  The distribution is controlled by the [[electronic control unit]] (ECU) of the vehicle. This effectively extends the Volt's potential range to as much as {{convert|640|mi|km|0}} on a single tank of fuel<ref name="Volt"/> (which could be potentially extended for longer trips through conventional refueling).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blogs.cars.com/kickingtires/2008/07/volt-gas-tank.html|title=KickingTires: GM Shrinks Volt's Gas Tank<!-- Bot generated title -->}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chevrolet.com/electriccar/|title=Chevrolet | New Electric Car - Concept Chevy Volt<!-- Bot generated title -->}}</ref>
The Cavalier was largely identical to the [[Pontiac Sunbird]]. Before the [[Pontiac]] brand was officially introduced in [[Mexico]] in 1992, Cavaliers sold there featured Sunbird body panels, as opposed to US-spec Cavalier panels. From 1993 on, the sibling marques were both offered, as in the United States.
[[Image:1st-Chevrolet-Cavalier-Sedan-1.jpg|thumb|left|200px|1985-1987 Chevrolet Cavalier sedan]]
[[Image:'85-'88 Chevrolet Cavalier Coupe.jpg|thumb|left|200px|1985-1987 Chevrolet Cavalier coupe]]
[[Image:1st Chevrolet Cavalier wagon rear.jpg|thumb|left|200px|1985-1987 Chevrolet Cavalier wagon]]

The Volt's 16 kWh lithium-ion battery pack can also be fully charged (technically ~85% SOC) by plugging the car into a 120-240VAC residential electrical outlet using the provided SAE J1772<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hybridcars.com/technology/plugging-your-volt-not-just-any-old-cord-25203.html|title=www.hybridcars.com/technology/plugging-your-volt-not-just-any-old-cord-25203.html<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref> compliant charging cord. No external charging station will be required.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=132246|title=As the Volt Turns: GM Exec Says Battery Will Recharge While Driving}}</ref>
==Second generation==
{{Infobox Automobile generation
| name          = Second generation
| image          = [[Image:'92-'94 Chevrolet Cavalier Sedan.jpg|250px|1991-1994 Chevrolet Cavalier sedan]]
| model_years    = 1988-1994
| body_style    = 2-door [[convertible]]<br>2-door [[coupe]]<br>4-door [[sedan (car)|sedan]]<br>4-door [[station wagon]]
| related        = [[Buick Skyhawk]]<br>[[Cadillac Cimarron]]<br>[[Oldsmobile Firenza]]<br>[[Pontiac Sunbird]]<br>[[Vauxhall Cavalier]]
| assembly      = [[Lordstown, Ohio]]<br>[[Lansing, Michigan]]<br>[[Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila]], [[Mexico]]
| fuel_capacity  = 15.2-18 US gal
| engine        = 2.0 L [[Straight-4|I4]]<br>2.2 L [[Straight-4|I4]]<br>2.8 L [[V6]]<br>3.1 L [[V6]]
| transmission  = 5-speed manual<br>3-speed automatic
| wheelbase      = 1988-89: {{auto in|101.2|0}}<br>1990-94: {{auto in|101.3|0}}
| length        = 1988-89: {{auto in|178.6|0}}<BR>1988-89 Wagon: {{auto in|178.8|0}}<br>1990-94: {{auto in|182.3|0}}<br>1990-94 Wagon: {{auto in|181.1|0}}
| width          = {{auto in|66.3|0}}<Br>1988-89 Sedan/Coupe/Wagon: {{auto in|66.0|0}}
| height        = 1988-1991 Coupe & 1990-91 Convertible: {{auto in|52.0|0}}<br>1988-1991 Sedan: {{auto in|53.6|0}}<br>1988-89 & 1992-94 Convertible: {{auto in|52.2|0}}<br>1988-89 Wagon: {{auto in|54.3|0}}<br>1990-91 Wagon: {{auto in|54.1|0}}<br>1992-94 Wagon: {{auto in|53.8|0}}<br>1992-94 Coupe: {{auto in|51.9|0}}<Br>1992-94 Sedan: {{auto in|53.5|0}}
| weight        = {{Auto lb|2359|0}} (coupe) <br> {{Auto lb|2363|0}} (sedan) <br> {{Auto lb|2271|0}} (RS coupe) <br> {{Auto lb|2414|0}} (RS sedan) <br> {{Auto lb|2558|0}} (Z24 coupe) <br> {{Auto lb|2665|0}} (Z24 convertible)

Since the current [[Society of Automotive Engineers]] (SAE) definition of a hybrid vehicle states the vehicle shall have "two or more energy storage systems both of which must provide propulsion power, either together or independently",<ref name="media.gm.com">http://media.gm.com/volt/eflex/docs/paper.pdf SAE paper 2008-01-0458 The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles</ref>the company has avoided the use of the term "hybrid" when describing its non-conforming [[E-Flex]] designs. Instead GM has described the Volt as an [[electric vehicle]] equipped with a "range extending" gasoline powered [[internal combustion engine|internal combustion engine (ICE)]] as a [[Engine-generator|genset]] and therefore dubbed an "Extended Range Electric Vehicle"<ref name="VoltMedia">{{cite web|url=http://media.gm.com/volt/eflex/index.html|title=Chevrolet Volt Media Site}}</ref> or EREV.<ref name="VoltMedia"/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.calcars.org/carmakers.html|title= How Carmakers Are Responding to the Plug-In Hybrid Opportunity}}</ref><ref name="Volt">{{cite pressrelease|url=http://media.gm.com/servlet/GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/gmnews/viewmonthlyreleasedetail.do?domain=3&docid=31656 |title= Chevrolet Volt - GM's Concept Electric Vehicle - Could Nearly Eliminate Trips To The Gas Station |accessdate=2007-01-08|date=2007-01-07|work=GM Media Online |publisher=General Motors}}</ref>
1988 Cavaliers were redesigned with fresh styling and modified engines. The hatchback disappeared from the line, but the other bodystyles continued. The exterior and interior were freshened in 1991.
However, the combination of an internal combustion engine and electric motors in such a configuration is most often referred to as a [[series hybrid]].

[[Image:88-90 Chevrolet Cavalier wagon.jpg|thumb|left|200px|1988-1990 Cavalier wagon]]
===Concept vehicle===
[[Image:91-94 Chevrolet Cavalier coupe.jpg‎|thumb|left|200px|1991-1994 Cavalier coupe]]
The Volt [[concept vehicle]] has four doors with a rear liftgate, and is capable of carrying four passengers. This is a significant change in design when compared to the [[General Motors EV1]] of the 1990s, which only seated two to reduce weight. The top speed has also been increased on the Volt, from the electronically limited {{convert|80|mph|km/h|-1}} to {{convert|120|mph|km/h|-1}}. The battery pack size has also been reduced, from about 300 [[liter|L]] in volume in the EV1, to just 100 L in the Volt.
[[Image:88-91 Chevrolet Cavalier convertible.jpg|thumb|left|200px|1991-1994 Cavalier Z24 convertible]]
[[Image:Chevrolet Cavalier wagon.jpg|thumb|left|200px|1991-1994 Cavalier wagon]]

===Production model===
==Third generation==
On September 16, 2008 [[General Motors]] first publicly displayed the production design model of the Chevrolet Volt that differed greatly in design from the original concept car. Citing necessary aerodynamic changes needed to extend the Volt's initial full-charge range, the Volt uses GM's new "Delta II" platform, shared by the planned 2010 [[Chevrolet Cruze]] and the 2011 Saab 9-3.<ref name="GMPressRelease"/><ref>[http://paultan.org/archives/2008/09/09/production-chevrolet-volt-hybrid-car-revealed/ "Production Chevrolet Volt hybrid car revealed"], paultan.org</ref>

===Electromechanical design timeline===
{{Infobox Automobile generation
GM executives report that battery technology will have a large impact in determining the success of the car.<ref>[http://www.motorauthority.com/cars/chevrolet/gms-volt-could-be-on-road-by-2010 Motor Authority » GM’s Volt could be on the road by 2010] from motorauthority.com</ref><ref>[http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120001331482082629.html Race to Make Electric Cars Stalled by Battery Problems] - WSJ.com</ref>
| name          = Third generation
| image          = [[Image:2000-2002 Chevrolet Cavalier sedan.jpg|250px|2000-2002 Chevrolet Cavalier sedan]]
| model_years= 1995–2005
| assembly      = [[Lordstown, Ohio]]<br>[[Lansing, Michigan]]<br>[[Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila]], [[Mexico]]
| body_style    = 2-door [[convertible]]<br>2-door [[coupe]]<br>4-door [[sedan (car)|sedan]]
| related        = [[Pontiac Sunfire]]
| wheelbase      = {{auto in|104.1|0}}
| aka            = Toyota Cavalier
| length        = 1995-97: {{auto in|180.3|0}}<br>1998-2002: {{auto in|180.7|0}}<Br>2003-05: {{auto in|180.9|0}}
| width          = 2-Door: {{auto in|68.7|0}}<br>4-Door: {{auto in|67.9|0}}
| height        = 1995-97 Coupe: {{auto in|53.2|0}}<br>1995-97 Sedan: {{auto in|54.8|0}}<br>1995-97 Convertible: {{auto in|53.9|0}}<br>1998-2005 Coupe: {{auto in|53.0|0}}<br>1998-99 Convertible: {{auto in|54.1|0}}<br>1998-2005 Sedan: {{auto in|54.7|0}}<Br>2000-02 Convertible: {{auto in|53.7|0}}
| engine        = 2.2 L GM OHV [[Straight-4|I4]] <BR> 2.2 L ''[[GM OHV engine#2200|2200]]'' [[Straight-4|I4]] <BR> 2.2 L ''[[GM Ecotec engine|Ecotec]]'' I4 <BR> 2.3&nbsp;L ''[[GM Quad-4 engine|Twin Cam]]'' I4 <BR> 2.4&nbsp;L ''[[GM Quad-4 engine#LD9|LD9]]'' I4
| transmission  = 5-speed ''[[Getrag F23 transmission|Getrag F23]]'' manual<br>5-speed Isuzu manual<br>4-speed automatic<br>3-speed automatic
| weight        = {{Auto lb|2562|0}} - {{Auto lb|2784|0}}
| fuel_capacity  = 15.2-18 US gal (58-69 litres)

To help spur battery research, GM selected two companies to provide advanced [[lithium-ion battery]] packs: [[Compact Power]], which uses manganese oxide based cells made by its parent company, [[LG Chemical]], and [[Continental Automotive Systems]], which uses nanophosphate based cylindrical cells made by A123Systems.<ref>{{cite pressrelease|url=http://media.gm.com/servlet/GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/gmnews/viewpressreldetail.do?domain=2&docid=36804|date=2007-06-05|title=GM Awards Advanced Development Battery Contracts For Chevrolet Volt E-Flex System|publisher=General Motors}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.popularmechanics.com/automotive/new_cars/4257460.html|title=GM Testing Volt's Battery, iPhone-like Dash on Track to 2010|publisher=Popular Mechanics|date=2008-04-04 |accessdate=2008-04-07}}</ref> However, on August 9, 2007, GM established a more close-knit relationship with [[A123Systems]] so that the two companies could co-develop a Volt-specific battery cell.<ref>{{cite pressrelease|url=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070823183654.htm|date=2007-08-29|title=Lithium Batteries For Hybrid Electric Cars|publisher=Science Daily}}</ref> This cell was later unveiled at the EVS23 industry convention in Anaheim, CA.<ref>[http://www.gm-volt.com/2007/12/03/a123-unveils-new-e-rev-battery-cell-for-chevy-volt/ "A123 Unveils New E-REV Battery Cell for Chevy Volt",] GM-VOLT: Chevy Volt Electric Car Site</ref> Work with CPI has continued at a rapid pace, and in late 2007 CPI delivered two fully-functional prototype battery packs to GM's testing facilities. On January 31, 2008, A123 and Continental delivered their first prototype to GM's European test facilities. GM announced on January 12, 2009 that it would use the LG Chem batteries for the production model. <ref>http://finance.yahoo.com/news/GM-picks-S-Koreas-LG-Chem-to-apf-14030457.html</ref>
The Cavalier was redesigned for 1995 with expanded dimensions and styling that was a departure from the two boxier previous generations. The wagon was discontinued, but the coupe, sedan, and convertible body styles returned.

GM expects ten years of life out of the batteries. As of early 2008, they had started extensive battery testing and planned to have 10-year battery results in two years. Batteries were placed in the [[Chevrolet Malibu]] for further real-world testing.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.autobloggreen.com/2008/04/03/gms-chevy-volt-update-all-systems-go-malibu-based-mules-comin/|title=GM's Chevy Volt update: All systems go, Malibu-based li-ion mules coming soon - AutoblogGreen<!-- Bot generated title -->}}</ref>
The Cavalier was facelifted in 2000 and in 2003. The convertible disappeared after 2000.

In April 2008, GM Vice Chairman [[Bob Lutz]] said that the first battery test mule was now running with a lithium-ion battery pack.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080424/OPINION03/804 |title=This article is no longer available online for free |accessdate=2008-04-28 |publisher=Detroit News}}</ref> By that summer, GM confirmed that a non-turbocharged, 1.4 liter 4-cylinder engine would be used as the range extender, and that the intention is to build it in [[Flint, Michigan]].<ref>[http://www.mlive.com/flintjournal/index.ssf/2008/07/general_motors_confirms_intent.html], ''mlive.com'', July 29, 2008</ref> A thermovoltaic [[solar power]] roof, allowing the owner to charge the battery by leaving the vehicle in sunlight, will be offered as an optional feature.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.maxgladwell.com/2008/09/stephen-colbert-interviews-gms-bob-lutz-on-the-chevy-volt-and-global-warming/|title="Stephen Colbert Interviews GM's Bob Lutz on the Chevy Volt and Global Warming}}</ref> Andrew Farah, the car's chief engineer, states that the project remains on-track to hit the 2010 deadline saying "at this point, there’s nothing standing in our way of continuing to do what we said we’re going to do."<ref>[http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iFHOu2alXYE7teF1NAFYU6FiLw8QD92HMNBO0], ''AP'', August 13, 2008</ref>
The Cavalier was replaced by the [[Chevrolet Cobalt]] in 2005.

In early September 2008, leaked photos of the production version of the Chevrolet Volt, along with various members of its development team, were shown on [[Autoblog]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.autoblog.com/2008/09/08/breaking-2011-chevy-volt-revealed|title=www.autoblog.com/2008/09/08/breaking-2011-chevy-volt-revealed<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref> Significant changes from the original design concept, as indicated by the leaked photos, were met with mixed reviews. On September 16. 2008 General Motors officially revealed the production version of the Volt.<ref name="GMPressRelease"/>
[[Image:Chevrolet Cavalier convertible.jpg|thumb|left|200px|1995-1999 Chevrolet Cavalier convertible]]
[[Image:1995 Chevrolet Cavalier.JPG|thumb|left|200px|1995-1999 Chevrolet Cavalier coupe]]
[[Image:2000-2002 Chevrolet Cavalier Coupe.jpg|thumb|left|200px|2000-2002 Chevrolet Cavalier coupe]]
[[Image:03-05 Chevrolet Cavalier coupe.jpg|thumb|left|200px|2003-2005 Chevrolet Cavalier coupe]]

The 2007 Chevrolet Volt [[concept vehicle]] that appeared in the [[North American International Auto Show]]<ref name="carconnection">{{cite web|url=http://www.thecarconnection.com/Auto_News/Green_Car_News/GM_Plugs_Fuel_Cells_into_Volt.S196.A12244.html|title=GM Plugs Fuel Cells into Volt|first=Paul A.|last=Eisenstein|date=2007-04-19|publisher=The Car Connection}}</ref> introduced the [[GM E-Flex platform|E-Flex]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.autobloggreen.com/2007/01/07/detroit-auto-show-general-motors-e-flex-platform/ |title=A look at the GM E-Flex platform |first=Sam |last=Abuelsamid |work=AutoBlogGreen.com |date=2007-01-07 |accessdate=2007-01-13}}</ref> drive system, which is an attempt to standardize many components of possible future electrically-propelled vehicles, and to allow multiple interchangeable electricity-generating systems. The initial design as envisioned in the Volt combines an [[electric]] motor and {{convert|16|kWh|MJ|abbr=on|lk=on}} [[lithium-ion]] battery plug-in system<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chevrolet.com/pop/electriccar/2007/process_en.jsp | title=E-Flex drive system | accessdate=2007-10-01}}</ref> with a small engine (1.4 liter) powered by [[gasoline]] linked to a {{convert|53|kW|hp|abbr=on|lk=on}} generator. The vehicle is propelled by an [[electric motor]] with a peak output of {{convert|120|kW|hp|abbr=on}}. Ordinarily, the vehicle would be charged while at home overnight. According to General Motors a full charge will take approximately 8-hours from a standard North American 120 [[Volt|V]], 15 [[Ampere|A]] household outlet and less than 3 hours if using a standard 240VAC outlet.<ref name="GMPressRelease"/>Charge times will be less if the battery is not fully depleted when charging commences.

Since the electrical drivetrain is not affected by the method used to charge its batteries, several options could be available for an engine. The original prototype specifications for the Volt indicated a turbo-charged 1.0 litre 4cyl engine would be used.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://media.gm.com/servlet/GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/gmnews/viewmonthlyreleasedetail.do?domain=3&docid=31656,|title=media.gm.com/servlet/GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/gmnews/viewmonthlyreleasedetail.do?domain=3&docid=31656,<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref> However the initial production configuration currently specified by GM indicates the use of a naturally aspirated 1.4-liter 4-cyl gasoline engine. It will be a [[flex-fuel]] internal combustion engine capable of running gasoline or [[E85]] (85% [[ethanol fuel|ethanol]], 15% gasoline) or any blend of those fuels.
The third-generation Cavalier earned several low scores in crash tests by the [[Insurance Institute for Highway Safety]] and [[National Highway Traffic Safety Administration]]. Also, IIHS fatality risks statistics rated the Cavalier among the "Highest rates of driver deaths," with 150 (4 door) to 171 (2 door) driver deaths per millon registered vehicle deaths. Average for the Cavalier class (small) was 103(4 door) to 134(2 door) driver deaths per millon registered vehicle deaths.<ref>[http://www.iihs.org/sr/pdfs/sr4204.pdf ''Driver´s deaths by make&model: Fatality risk in one vehicle versus another'']</ref>
Fuel would be supplied from a "saddle" tank {{convert|45|l|USgal|0}} in size.

This general layout is considered a plug-in [[Types of hybrid vehicle#Series hybrid|series hybrid]] design since mechanical power initially drives the generator, which in turn either charges the battery pack or provides power to the electric motor. While the [[internal combustion engine|ICE]] has an electrical connection with the electric motor and hence the wheels, it does not have any mechanical linkage to the wheels (unlike current [[hybrid vehicles]] such as the [[Toyota Prius]]), and can run at necessary speeds for optimizing fuel consumption, reduced emissions and charge rate efficiency.
The IIHS gave the 1995-2005 Cavalier a ''Poor'' overall score in their frontal offset collision test.<ref>http://www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id=45</ref>

GM plans to station charge the lithium-ion battery to a state-of-charge (SOC) range of approx 85%. Then once the battery depletes to a precise low set-point (<25%) the on-board ICE powered generator will recharge the battery to an upper set-point above the 30% SOC level.<ref name="media.gm.com"/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gm-volt.com/2007/08/29/latest-chevy-volt-battery-pack-and-generator-details-and-clarifications/ |title=Latest Chevy Volt Battery Pack and Generator Details and Clarifications |first=Lyle J. |last=Dennis, M.D. |work=GM-Volt.com | accessdate=2007-08-29}}</ref>
2005 [[National Highway Traffic Safety Administration]] (NHTSA) Crash Test Ratings (coupe):<ref>http://www.safercar.gov/portal/search?model=3230</ref>

GM has decided on a new descriptive terminology to distinguish it from traditional hybrids. They are calling the Volt an E-REV, for extended-range electric vehicle.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gm-volt.com/2007/11/23/gm-calls-the-volt-an-e-rev/ |title=GM Calls the Volt an E-REV |first=Lyle J. |last=Dennis, M.D. |work=GM-Volt.com | accessdate=2007-11-23}}</ref> This is in part justified since there is no mechanical linkage between the gasoline engine and the wheels. The design is conceptually similar to a modern [[electromotive]] [[locomotive]], with a generator, an electric motor, and [[regenerative braking]], with the addition of a storage battery.
Frontal Driver: {{rating|4|5}}

==Production and sales==
Frontal Passenger: {{rating|4|5}}
In July 2007, General Motors stated that it would have the Volt on the U.S. market in 2010,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.voanews.com/english/2007-07-26-voa25.cfm |title=General Motors Brings Chevrolet Volt Car to Washington |publisher=VOANews.com |date=2007-07-26 |accessdate=2007-08-06}}</ref> and in early June 2008, they confirmed that production had been approved, with a target of getting the Volt into showrooms by the end of 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/pressReleasesMolt/idUSN037009220080603|title=GM says all-electric Volt approved for 2010 launch|first=Soyoung|last=Kim|publisher=[[Reuters]]|date=2008-06-03|accessdate=2008-07-04}}</ref> Following the conclusion of the 2007 [[United Auto Workers|UAW-GM]] [[2007 General Motors strike|contract talks]], assembly of the Volt was assigned to [[Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly]].<ref>{{Cite news |last =Terlep |first=Sharon |last2=Aguilar |first2=Louis |title=Detroit to build GM's car of future |publisher=Detroit News |date=2007-09-29 |url=http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070929/AUTO01/709290383/1148}}</ref> Initially the gasoline engine will be imported from GM's [[Opel]] engine plant in [[Aspern]], [[Austria|Austria]].<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.mlive.com/naias/index.ssf/2009/01/volts_first_rangeextending_eng.html | title=Chevy Volt's first range-extending engines will come from Austria, not Flint | first=Ron | last=Fonger | publisher=[[Flint Journal]] | date=[[2009-01-13]] | accessdate=2009-01-15}}</ref> Early estimates, from GM staff, were of initial annual production of 60,000 units,<ref>[http://www.evworld.com/news.cfm?newsid=16013 GM Could Build 60,000 Volt Electric Cars in First Year] from the EVWORLD Newswire</ref> but these claims have been scaled back to a planned 10,000 units, as of May 2008,<ref>[http://www.leftlanenews.com/chevy-volt-hybrid-to-see-limited-production-in-first-year.html Chevy Volt hybrid to see limited production in first year] from leftlanenews.com</ref> with a ramp up to 60,000 units in the second year.<ref>[http://wot.motortrend.com/6254917/according-to-lutz/volt-watch-lutz-confirms-pricing-gives-production-numbers/index.html Lutz confirms pricing, gives production numbers] from motortrend.com</ref>

At the [[British International Motor Show#2008|British International Motor Show]] in July 2008, GM stated that they were considering building all of the Volts for the European market, branded [[Chevrolet]], [[Opel]] and [[Vauxhall Motors|Vauxhall]], at their Vauxhall plant in [[Ellesmere Port]] in the [[United Kingdom]].<ref name="ft_20080723">{{cite news |title=GM eyes Merseyside plant for electric car |date=2008-07-23 |publisher=The Financial Times |url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1255e414-584f-11dd-b02f-000077b07658.html |accessdate=2008-10-08}}</ref> In August 2008 GM stated that the Volt would be available for sale in Europe in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|title=Chevy Volt: A look at GM's huge gamble on the electric Chevy Volt | url=http://www.cnbc.com/id/15840232?video=807139236&play=1}}</ref>
Side Driver: {{rating|1|5}} *safety concern*
In late January 2009, GM Europe announced that its version of the Volt, the [[Opel Ampera]], will be unveiled at the [[Geneva Auto Show]] in March.<ref>http://wardsauto.com/home/opel_volt_xlr_090127/</ref>
At the [[Australian_International_Motor_Show|Sydney Motor Show]] in October 2008, [[Holden]] stated that the Volt would be available in [[Australia]] by 2012 for "more than $30,000". <ref>{{cite web|title=Electric shock: Volt hybrid to be sold in Australia | url=http://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=57556}}</ref>

Side Rear Passenger: {{rating|2|5}}
In the U.S. market, the price of the Volt is expected to be around {{USD|40K}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/22/business/22volt.html|title=G.M.’s Latest Great Green Hope Is a Tall Order|first=Micheline|last=Maynard|publisher=New York Times|date=November 22, 2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23793222/page/2/|title=The road to a stronger CAFE standard|first=David|last=Kiley|date=March 25, 2008|publisher=MSNBC}}</ref> with government approved subsidies bringing the price to around $32.5K. Initially, the GM vice president wanted it at about [[US$]]30K.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.charlierose.com/shows/2008/8/18/1/part-one-of-a-look-at-gm-with-ceo-rick-wagoner|title=Part One of a Look at GM with CEO Rick Wagoner|publisher=Charlie Rose|date=August 18, 2008}}</ref>

The indicated price for the UK market is {{GBP|20K}}.<ref name="ft_20080723"/>
Rollover: {{rating|4|5}}

===Anticipated U.S. Federal Tax Subsidies===
2002 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Crash Test Ratings (sedan):<ref>http://www.safercar.gov/portal/search?model=3231</ref>
In the United States, and based on its current battery power density, the Volt will reportedly qualify for a $7,500 tax credit.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20081002/AUTO01/810020388/1148/&source=nletter-business|title=www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20081002/AUTO01/810020388/1148/&source=nletter-business<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>

Frontal Driver: {{rating|4|5}}
===Fuel efficiency===
For trips less than about {{convert|40|mi|0}} per charging cycle, the Volt will not use any onboard gas, so assigning a fuel consumption value which only referred to ''onboard'' fuel might not be appropriate.
Once the Volt's battery has discharged to its lower limit set-point, the Volt's range-extending gasoline engine is expected to get from approximately {{convert|50|mpgUS|abbr=on}} to as much as {{convert|150|mpgUS|abbr=on}} depending on its run-time duty cycles.
This is because once the battery has been recharged to an upper limit set-point (by the engine driven 53&nbsp;kW onboard generator), the internal combustion engine will again shut off. Therefore the variables that contribute to the specific duty cycle periods of the internal combustion engine run-times, will need to be factored in to the Volt's final fuel economy rating as determined by the EPA.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2007-01-07-volt_x.htm|title=Chevy Volt concept offers 150 mpg, but the plug-in hybrid needs a new technology|first=Chris|last=Woodyard|accessdate=2008-07-04|date=2007-01-07|publisher=[[USA Today]]}}</ref>

===Battery ===
Frontal Passenger: {{rating|4|5}}
It has been reported that GM has decided to work exclusively with [[Compact Power Incorporated]] (CPI), a Detroit-based unit of South Korea’s [[LG Chem]], to provide the battery systems for the first production version of the Volt.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssChemicalsCommodity/idUSN2239779020081022?sp=trueh|title=LG Chem to supply GM Volt batteries -- sources|date=October 22, 2008|publisher=Reuters}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://gm-volt.com/2008/10/22/breaking-lg-chem-and-compact-power-inc-to-supply|title=BREAKING: LG Chem and Compact Power Inc. to Supply Volt Battery Packs|date=October 22, 2008|publisher=GM-Volt.com}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.leftlanenews.com/gm-inks-chevrolet-volt-battery-contract.html|publisher=Left Lane News|date=October 24, 2008|title=GM inks Chevrolet Volt battery contract}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/science/environment/la-fi-chrysler24-2008sep24,0,5809910.story|title=Chrysler charges into electric car race|publisher=Los Angeles Times|date=September 24, 2008}}</ref>  The cells will be produced in Korea and subsequently shipped to the United States, where the battery packs will be assembled at a purpose-built facility in Michigan owned and operated by GM.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gm-volt.com/2009/01/12/its-official-gm-chooses-lg-chemcompact-power-inc-to-supply-chevy-volt-lithium-ion-battery-packs|title=GM Chooses LG Chem to Supply Chevy Volt’s Lithium-ion Batteries and Will Build the Packs Themselves|date=January 12, 2009|publisher=GM-Volt.com}}</ref>

The anticipated energy capacity of the Volt's {{convert|375|lb|kg|abbr=on|lk=on}} 220-cell lithium-ion battery pack is estimated at 16 kWh,<ref name="GMPressRelease"/> but is only charged to 85% full when charged up, and is discharged to 30% SoC approximately, before the engine cuts in and maintains the charge at around this level. When the vehicle is plugged into a charger the battery SoC is restored to 85%. Hence the battery has an effective capacity in use of 8.8 kWh.
Side Driver: {{rating|1|5}} *safety concern*

The weight of the battery pack in the Volt which finally comes to market will reportedly be approximately {{convert|375|lb|abbr=on}},<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://media.gm.com/servlet/GatewayServlet?target=http://image.emerald.gm.com/gmnews/viewpressreldetail.do?domain=39&docid=44828|title=Chevrolet Volt Development Charges On|date=2008-04-03|publisher=General Motors}}</ref> primarily because the Volt will use [[lithium-ion]] (Li-ion) batteries while the EV1 used heavier lead-acid and [[nickel metal hydride]] (NiMH) batteries. Li-ion batteries are expected to become cheaper to manufacture, once economies of scale take effect.<ref>J. Larminie and J. Lowry, Electric Vehicle Technology Explained, John Wiley & Sons, 2003</ref>
Side Rear Passenger: {{rating|3|5}}

==Regulated emissions impact==
Rollover: {{rating|4|5}}
===Tailpipe emissions===
It is anticipated that the Chevrolet Volt will be granted a [[California Air Resources Board]] (CARB) classification as an Advanced Technology [[Partial zero-emissions vehicle]] ([[AT-PZEV]])
Assuming a fully charged battery, the Volt will use no gasoline and produce no [[tailpipe]] [[emissions]] for up to {{convert|40|mi|km}} of initial daily driving.<ref name="GMPressRelease"/> However, after {{convert|40|mi|km}}, the [[State of Charge|state-of-charge]] (SOC) of the HV battery will be depleted and the internal combustion engine (ICE) will startup to commence power generation.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://media.gm.com/volt/eflex/docs/paper.pdf|title=media.gm.com/volt/eflex/docs/paper.pdf<!--INSERT TITLE-->|format=PDF}}</ref>During this period, using typical closed-loop fueling and exhaust after treatment (i.e. catalytic converter) the tail-pipe exhaust emissions will be similar to other 4-cyl low displacement gasoline-powered automobile..<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gm.com/experience/fuel_economy/altfuel/emissions/50state/pdf/2009MY.pdf|title=www.gm.com/experience/fuel_economy/altfuel/emissions/50state/pdf/2009MY.pdf<!--INSERT TITLE-->|format=PDF}}</ref>
However, once a sufficient battery state-of-charge has been achieved, the ICE will again turn OFF,<ref name="GMPressRelease"/> returning to a zero emissions state. This ON:OFF ICE cycling behavior results in the reduction of Initial Trip Starts and therefore a reduction in total tailpipe emissions per distance travelled.<ref name="GMPressRelease"/>

== Production ==
===EPA testing===
Most Cavaliers were built at [[Lordstown Assembly]], although they have also been produced in [[South Gate, California]] (1982 model year only), [[Lansing Car Assembly]] (1996-1998 coupes), [[Lansing Craft Centre]] (1996-2000 convertibles), [[Janesville Assembly]], [[Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila|Ramos Arizpe]], and [[Leeds Assembly]].
As of September 2008, General Motors was reportedly in disagreement with the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency]] regarding how the Volt should be tested to determine its official fuel economy rating. The EPA reportedly wants to alter the method of testing currently used for all other hybrid vehicles. If tested with the same EPA tests used by other hybrids, the Volt's ability to use the energy stored in the batteries would result in it achieving a fuel economy rating of over 100 mpg, which would make the Volt the first mass-produced automobile to achieve such a rating.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/cars-trucks/daily-news/080908-Chevy-Volt-100-mpg-or-48-mpg-/|title=Chevy Volt -- 100 mpg, or 48 mpg?|date=September 8, 2008|publisher=Rankings and Reviews}}</ref>

General Motors believes that although the Volt is an entirely new type of vehicle, it suggests that altering the current EPA hybrid testing methods to suit a single vehicle entry would be unfair and would not recognize the fact that the car can travel an estimated {{convert|40|mi|km}} on battery power alone before the gasoline powered engine has to be started to commence recharging its battery pack.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blogs.motortrend.com/6293345/government/could-the-epa-cripple-the-chevy-volt/index.html|title=Could the EPA cripple the Chevy Volt?|date=September 5, 2008|publisher=Motortrend}}</ref>
== United States sales figures ==
* 58,904  - 1982
* 268,587 - 1983
* 462,611 - 1984
* 383,752 - 1985
* 432,101 - 1986
* 346,254 - 1987
* 322,939 - 1988
* 376,626 - 1989
* 310,501 - 1990
* 326,847 - 1991
* 225,633 - 1992
* 251,590 - 1993
* 254,426 - 1994
* 151,669 - 1995
* 261,686 - 1996
* 315,136 - 1997
* 238,861 - 1998

===CAFE impact===
Sources: [[Edmunds.com]] (1992-98), Autoworld.com (1999 estimate)[http://www.autoworld.com/apps/news/FullStory.asp?id=335]<!-- "Chevrolet Cavalier Z24 - Two Times the Fun"], S Osborn, Autoworld.com -->
In a response to the [[National Highway Traffic Safety Administration|U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's]] (NHTSA) proposed targets for Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), GM indicated that the potentially limited production numbers of the Volt will mean it will have little influence on its CAFE results during the 2011-2015 timeframe."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121729112585291671.html?mod=googlenews_wsj|title=online.wsj.com/article/SB121729112585291671.html?mod=googlenews_wsj<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref>

===Battery charging emissions===
== Engines used ==
One article describes a claim by General Motors that operating the Volt for a year, results in a possible reduction of about 4.4 metric tonnes in CO<sub>2</sub> emissions as compared to a typical U.S. car.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=119088|title=www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=119088<!--INSERT TITLE-->}}</ref> However, unless the Volt uses wholly green energy sources for charging, the [[Electricity generation|generation of electricity]] to station-charge its batteries will, depending on the energy source, result in the emission of varying levels of [[combustion]] by-products including the [[greenhouse gas]] CO<sub>2</sub> directly from the generating [[power station]].<ref name=knipping>Knipping, E. and Duvall, M. (June 2007) [http://www.epri-reports.org/Volume2Part1R2.pdf "Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 2: United States Air Quality Analysis Based on AEO-2006 Assumptions for 2030"] ''[[Electric Power Research Institute]] and [[Natural Resources Defense Council]]'' accessed July 21, 2007</ref>
* 1.8 L [[inline-4]] [[Overhead valve|OHV]]
* 2.0 L inline-4 OHV
* 2.2 L inline-4 OHV
* 2.2 L inline-4 OHV [[GM 122 engine|"2200 SFI"]]
* 2.2 L inline-4 [[DOHC]] "Ecotec"
* 2.3 L inline-4 DOHC (1995 Z24 only)
* 2.4 L inline-4 DOHC (Z24)
* 2.8 L [[MPFI]] (available in American Z24 and RS (Rally Sport) models from 1986 to 1989, and in Mexican models until 1994)
* 3.1 L [[V6]] [[MPFI]] (Available in Z24, RS (Rally Sport) and Wagon models from 1990 to 1994)

In locations such as [[Ontario]], where there is a high level of constant electric generation due to a high mix of [[Nuclear power|nuclear power generation]] and large-scale [[hydroelectricity|hydro-electric power generation]], much of the power goes to "waste" in off-peak times as generation exceeds the [[baseload]] due to the impracticality of scaling back the output of a [[CANDU reactor]] or hydro-electric plant on an hour-by-hour basis.  In Ontario, baseload demand varies between 12000 and 15000 MW depending on season<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ieso.com/imoweb/media/md_supply.asp|title=IESO Supply Overview|accessdate=2009-01-05|date=2007|publisher=IESO (Independant Electricity System Operator of Ontario)}}</ref>, however the total generation by nuclear and hydroelectric plants (when all are in operation) accounts for over 19000 MW.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.opg.com/pdf/highschool.pdf#page=5|title=How It Works: Electricity Generation|accessdate=2009-01-05|date=2007|publisher=Ontario Power Generation}}</ref>  In this jurisdiction and other similar ones, electric vehicles which are charged during off-peak times result in zero additional [[pollution]].
=== Years used ===

The [[University of California, Davis]] calculated that, generally, plug-in cars that are charged using electricity from the local [[Electric power transmission|grid]] will emit notably less CO<sub>2</sub> overall than the use of cars powered from on-board, oil-based fuel, if a significant proportion of that electricity is generated from [[nuclear power]] and renewable sources such as hydro-electric (45% in California, for example).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=8387|title=UC Davis Will Study Users of New Plug-in Hybrid Cars|first=Sylvia|last=Wright|accessdate=2008-10-25|date=2007-10-30|publisher=UC Davis News Service}}</ref>
* 1982-1985 GM inline-4 [[OHV]] 1.8 L [[Straight-4|I4]]
* 1986-1989 GM inline-4 [[OHV]] 2.0 L [[Straight-4|I4]]
* 1986-1989 2.8 L [[MPFI]] [[V6]]
* 1990-1994 3.1&nbsp;L [[MPFI]] (191&nbsp;in³) [[V6]]
* 1992-1997 GM inline-4 [[OHV]] 2.2&nbsp;L (134&nbsp;in³) [[Straight-4|I4]] {{Convert|120|hp|kW|0|abbr=on}} LN2
* 1995 [[GM Quad-4 engine|Quad-4]] 2.3&nbsp;L (138&nbsp;in³) [[Straight-4|I4]] {{Convert|145|hp|kW|0|abbr=on}} LD2
* 1998-2002 2.2 L GM inline-4 [[OHV]] [[GM 122 engine|"2200 SFI"]] {{Convert|115|hp|kW|0|abbr=on}} LN2
* 1996-2002 [[GM Quad-4 engine#LD9|LD9]] 2.4&nbsp;L (146&nbsp;in³) [[Straight-4|I4]] {{Convert|150|hp|kW|0|abbr=on}}
* 2002-2005 [[GM Ecotec engine#L61|Ecotec L61]] 2.2&nbsp;L (134&nbsp;in³) [[Straight-4|I4]] {{Convert|140|hp|kW|0|abbr=on}}

UK based ''[[Auto Express]]'' magazine claims to have calculated that the generation of electricity for charging the batteries in the Volt resulted in emissions equivalent to 124.2 [[g/km]] of CO<sub>2</sub> for electric-only trips (those not involving the use of any on board fuel), based on government figures for the average CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from [[power stations]]. No calculations are shown in the article, so the veracity of this claim cannot be evaluated. According to Auto Express, this is more CO<sub>2</sub> than the [[BMW 1 Series|BMW 118d]] produces.<ref name="ae_20080926">{{cite news |title=Electric cars in emissions shock |author=David Wrottesley |date=2008-09-26 |publisher=Dennis Publishing |work=Auto Express |url=http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/news/autoexpressnews/228711/electric_cars_in_emissions_shock.html |accessdate=2008-10-13}}</ref>
== Toyota Cavalier ==
[[Image:Toyota Cavalier Rearlights.jpg|thumb|right|250px|1996 Toyota Cavalier coupé (Japanese export model with [[Amber (color)|amber]] rear [[turn signal]]s)]]
As part of a wider effort to avoid additional restrictions on exports to the US, the third generation model was briefly sold in [[Japan]] by [[Toyota]] under an agreement with GM, [[rebadge|badged]] as the '''Toyota Cavalier'''. Aside from the fact that it was [[right hand drive]], the Toyota Cavalier also featured a leather-wrapped shift knob and steering wheel, wider front fenders, [[Amber (color)|amber]] [[Automotive lighting#Turn signals|turn signals]] for Japanese regulations, power folding rear mirrors, side [[Automotive lighting#Turn signals|turn signal repeater]] lights on the front fenders, and carpeting on the inside of the trunk lid. Interior seats were often flecked with color, and the rear seat had a fold-down armrest. The Toyota Cavalier was entirely produced by GM in the USA and sold from 1995 - 2000. 1996-2000 Toyota Cavaliers came equipped with the 2.4L LD9 engine, while the 1995 used the 2.3 liter quad 4.

A study by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) predicts that, on average, a typical plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is expected to achieve about a 15% reduction in net CO<sub>2</sub> emissions compared to the driver of a regular hybrid, based on the 2005 distribution of power sources feeding the U.S. electrical grid. The ACEEE study also predicts that in areas where less than 80% of grid-power comes from coal-burning power plants, local net CO<sub>2</sub> emissions will decrease, but points out that these numbers are first order estimates and are not conclusive.<ref name="aceee">Kliesch, J. and Langer, T. (September 2006) [http://www.aceee.org/store/proddetail.cfm?CFID=1941952&CFTOKEN=35186425&ItemID=418&CategoryID=7 "Plug-In Hybrids: an Environmental and Economic Performance Outlook"] American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy</ref>
While all Chevrolet-badged Cavaliers received a facelift for 2000, the Toyota did not and used the same basic design for the 2000s as it did for the 1995-1999 models. The only exception to this is the colors available, the interior trim colors and the tail-lights.

In [[Australia]], where 85% of electricity nationally is produced using black and brown coal <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.coal21.com.au/Media/COAL21_Action_Plan.pdf|title= Coal21 An Action Plan for Australia|accessdate=2009-01-17}}</ref>, with most of the remainder produced using [[Hydroelectricity|hydro]] and [[natural gas]], the [[emission_factor|greenhouse emission factors]] vary between states, and is 1.22 kg-CO<sub>2</sub>e/kWh  <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.environment.gov.au/settlements/challenge/members/emissions.html|title=Emissions Calculator|accessdate=2009-01-17}}</ref> in [[Victoria_(Australia)|Victoria]], 0.890 kg-CO<sub>2</sub>e/kWh in [[New South Wales]], and 0.120 kg-CO<sub>2</sub>e/kWh in [[Tasmania]]. Assuming a charge requires 8.8 kWh<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gm-volt.com/index.php?s=cycled|title=What will it cost to drive a Chevy Volt|accessdate=2009-01-17}}</ref>, allowing 40 miles (64 km) of travel without petrol, the greenhouse intensities are 167 g-CO<sub>2</sub>e/km for Victoria, 122 g-CO<sub>2</sub>e/km for NSW, and 16 g-CO<sub>2</sub>e/km for Tasmania. Electricity consumers can elect to purchase [[green energy|green power]] at a higher cost, but with significantly lower emissions. For comparative purposes using the same methodology, that is, measuring only the direct emissions from the burning of the fuel, and ignoring fuel procurement/production/delivery <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.greenvehicleguide.gov.au/GVGPublicUI/StaticContent/emissions.aspx#2|title=Australian Green Vehicle Guide - Learn more|accessdate=2009-01-18}}</ref>, the [[Toyota Prius]] tank-to-wheel greenhouse intensity in units of g-CO<sub>2</sub> ([[Carbon_dioxide_equivalent|CO<sub>2</sub>e]] information not available) in Australia is 115 g/km (5.1 l/100km combined cycle),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/bymanu.htm|title=fueleconomy.gov|accessdate=2009-01-21}}</ref> [[Toyota Yaris]] 1.3 manual is 141 g/km (6.0 l/100km combined cycle), and the [[BMW 120d]] is 162 g/km (6.1 l/100km combined cycle)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.greenvehicleguide.gov.au|title=Australian Green Vehicle Guide|accessdate=2009-01-18}}</ref>. It should be noted that this comparison is not the standard method used by government agencies for comparing the emissions of two vehicles, where the tank-to-wheel only is used; in this case, the Volt would be emission-free for the 40-mile all-electric range (AER).  The above comparison does not include the full fuel cycle for either vehicle, known as a well-to-wheel analysis, and so the numbers may be slightly misleading.
A fair number of these vehicles are re-exported as Japanese used cars, most notably to [[New Zealand]]. Production of the Toyota Cavalier ceased in June 2000.

==See also==
[[Toyota Racing Development|TRD]] made a body kit and rear wing for the Cavalier, available exclusively in Japan.

*[[E-Flex platform]]
== References ==
*[[Electric car]]
*[[General Motors EV1]]
*[[General Motors Hy-wire]] - Hydrogen powered
*[[General Motors Sequel]] - Hydrogen powered
*[[General Motors XP-883]] - Plug-in 1969
*[[Genset trailer]]
*[[Opel Flextreme]] - Diesel plug-in by GM

== External links ==
* [http://www.chevrolet.com/cavalier/ Official site]
* [http://www.funcheapcars.com/2008/10/used-car-reviews-chevrolet-cavalier.html Chevrolet Cavalier Review - Funcheapcars.com]
* [http://www.j-body.org The J-Body Organization]
* [http://www.jbodysource.org The J-Body Source (How-tos/Modification Guides)]
* [http://www.v6z24.com Z24 V6 Enthusiast Site]
* [http://www.clubcav.com ClubCav]
* [http://www.jbody.org J-Body.com]
* [http://www.j-body.com JCO - J-body Club of Ontario]
* [http://sites.google.com/site/rucavalier/ Russian Toyota/Cavalier fans]


==External links==
[[Category:Chevrolet vehicles|Cavalier]]
*[http://www.chevrolet.com/electriccar/ Official Chevrolet page about the Volt]
[[Category:Compact cars]]
*[http://www.gm-volt.com/ GM-Volt: Chevrolet Volt Electric Car Site]
[[Category:Front wheel drive vehicles]]
[[Category:Station wagons]]
[[Category:1980s automobiles]]
[[Category:1990s automobiles]]
[[Category:2000s automobiles]]
[[Category:Vehicles built in Lansing, Michigan]]
[[Category:Vehicles introduced in 1982]]
[[Category:Goods manufactured in the United States]]

[[Category:Chevrolet vehicles|Volt]]
[[Category:Chevrolet concept vehicles|Volt]]
[[Category:Plug-in hybrid vehicles]]
[[Category:Green vehicles]]
[[Category:Prototype electric vehicles]]
[[Category:Sustainable technologies]]
[[Category:Alternative propulsion]]
[[Category:Automotive technologies]]
[[Category:Flexible-fuel vehicles]]

[[de:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[ca:Chevrolet Cavalier]]
[[es:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[de:Chevrolet Cavalier]]
[[eo:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[fr:Chevrolet Cavalier]]
[[fr:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[lt:Chevrolet Cavalier]]
[[it:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[lt:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[pl:Chevrolet Cavalier]]
[[pl:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[pt:Chevrolet Cavalier]]
[[pt:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[ru:Chevrolet Volt]]
[[sv:Chevrolet Volt]]
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